"The drinking of chlorinated water has finally been officially linked to an increased incidence of colon cancer. An epidemiologist at Oak Ridge Associated Universities completed a study of colon cancer victims and non-cancer patients and concluded that the drinking of chlorinated water for 15 years or more was conducive to a high rate of colon cancer."
A copy of the The Facts About Chlorine (General Information) is available in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF, 63 KB, 3pg.)
Note to reader: This fact sheet is intended to provide general awareness and education on a specific chemical agent. For information on preparedness and response (e.g., for first responders and emergency medical personnel), please refer to the following Department resources:
Chlorine is a chemical used in industry and in household cleaning products. Chlorine is among the ten highest volume chemicals made in the United States. At room temperature, chlorine is a gas. It has a yellow-green color, and a pungent, irritating odor similar to bleach. Usually, it is pressurized and cooled for storage and shipment as an amber-colored liquid. Chlorine does not catch fire easily, but may combine with other common substances to form explosive compounds.
Chlorine has a variety of uses. It is used to disinfect water and is part of the sanitation process for sewage and industrial waste. During the production of paper and cloth, chlorine is used as a bleaching agent. It is also used in cleaning products, including household bleach which is chlorine dissolved in water. Chlorine is used in the preparation of chlorides, chlorinated solvents, pesticides, polymers, synthetic rubbers, and refrigerants.
Because of its widespread use in industrial and commercial locations, exposure to chlorine could occur from an accidental spill or release, or from a deliberate terrorist attack. The most harmful route of exposure is from breathing chlorine gas. Exposure may also result from skin contact or eye contact with chlorine gas or by swallowing chlorine-contaminated food or water.
Chlorine gas is heavier than air and will initially remain in low-lying areas unless wind or other conditions provide air movement.
When chlorine enters the body as a result of breathing, swallowing, or skin contact, it reacts with water to produce acids. The acids are corrosive and damage cells in the body on contact.
Most harmful chlorine exposures are the result of inhalation. Health effects typically begin within seconds to minutes. Following chlorine exposure, the most common symptoms are:
The severity of health effects depend upon the route of exposure, the dose and the duration of exposure to chlorine. Breathing high levels of chlorine causes fluid build-up in the lungs, a condition known as pulmonary edema. The development of pulmonary edema may be delayed for several hours after exposure to chlorine. Contact with compressed liquid chlorine may cause frostbite of the skin and eyes.
If you have been exposed to a release of chlorine, take the following steps:
To limit health effects from exposure to chlorine, wash eyes and skin as quickly as possible with large amounts of water.
There is no antidote for chlorine poisoning, but chlorine's effects are treatable, and most people recover. People who experience serious health effects (such as severe eye or airway irritation, severe coughing, difficulty breathing, pulmonary edema) may need hospital care.
Laboratory testing for chlorine exposure will not be useful in making treatment decisions. A person exposed to harmful amounts of chlorine will notice it immediately because of the unpleasant odor and the resulting skin, eye, nose and/or throat irritation. Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of chlorine poisoning will primarily be based upon patient history and their health effects.
Call the following numbers, or visit the websites listed among the "Sources".
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2002. ToxFAQs for Chlorine. Division of Toxicology, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service: Atlanta, GA. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=200&tid=36
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2003. Medical Management Guidelines for Chlorine. Division of Toxicology, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service; Atlanta, GA. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mmg/mmg.asp?id=198&tid=36
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Sheets. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service; Atlanta, GA. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/agentlistchem.asp
Chlorine. In: Sifton DW (Ed.), Physicians’ Desk Reference Guide to Biological and Chemical Warfare Response, 1st ed. (pp. 48-49). Montvale, NJ: Thomson/Physicians’ Desk Reference, 2002.
This fact sheet is based on the most current information. It may be updated as new information becomes available.